Intestinal injury from ionizing radiation is a clinically important entity, as enteritis symptoms occur commonly after radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Preventative or therapeutic options for radiation enteritis are mostly unsatisfactory; however, available data suggests that probiotic bacteria - those which confer health benefit - may have therapeutic value. Previous reports from both human trials and animal models have evaluated various end points for probiotic usage in limiting radiation-associated intestinal damage. Newer data suggests that particular probiotics andor their secreted or derived bacterial products may have unique radioprotective properties. We will review the area with a focus on new developments surrounding probiotic therapy in radiation-induced intestinal injury and repair.