Pro-inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid profile of neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage: clinical relevance and contrast with CNS infection

Maria Garcia-Bonilla, Alexander T. Yahanda, Albert M. Isaacs, Brandon Baksh, S. Hassan A. Akbari, Haley Botteron, Diego M. Morales, Rowland H. Han, James P. McAllister, Amit Mathur, Jennifer M. Strahle, Christopher D. Smyser, David D. Limbrick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Interpretation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies can be challenging in preterm infants. We hypothesized that intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), and infection (meningitis) promote pro-inflammatory CSF conditions reflected in CSF parameters. Methods: Biochemical and cytological profiles of lumbar CSF and peripheral blood samples were analyzed for 81 control, 29 IVH grade 1/2 (IVH1/2), 13 IVH grade 3/4 (IVH3/4), 15 PHH, 20 culture-confirmed bacterial meningitis (BM), and 27 viral meningitis (VM) infants at 36.5 ± 4 weeks estimated gestational age. Results: PHH infants had higher (p < 0.02) CSF total cell and red blood cell (RBC) counts compared to control, IVH1/2, BM, and VM infants. No differences in white blood cell (WBC) count were found between IVH3/4, PHH, BM, and VM infants. CSF neutrophil counts increased (p ≤ 0.03) for all groups compared to controls except IVH1/2. CSF protein levels were higher (p ≤ 0.02) and CSF glucose levels were lower (p ≤ 0.003) for PHH infants compared to all other groups. In peripheral blood, PHH infants had higher (p ≤ 0.001) WBC counts and lower (p ≤ 0.03) hemoglobin and hematocrit than all groups except for IVH3/4. Conclusions: Similarities in CSF parameters may reflect common pathological processes in the inflammatory response and show the complexity associated with interpreting CSF profiles, especially in PHH and meningitis/ventriculitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalFluids and barriers of the CNS
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2024

Keywords

  • Bacterial Meningitis
  • CNS infection
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus
  • Prematurity
  • Viral meningitis

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