Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare, with only case reports and small case series documented in the English literature, many of which were published prior to the era of molecular pathology. In the current study, we aim to present a contemporary multi-centric cohort of thyroid mesenchymal tumors. Nineteen primary thyroid mesenchymal tumors were collected from three tertiary centers. Their clinicopathologic features, immunoprofile, molecular alterations, and outcome were described. Eight cases were classified as benign or intermediate with solitary fibrous tumor being the most common histotype (n = 3). The remaining 11 cases were malignant, including three angiosarcomas, one epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, one adamantinoma-like Ewing sarcoma, one biphasic synovial sarcoma, one malignant melanocytic peripheral nerve sheath tumor (melanotic schwannoma), one myxofibrosarcoma, and two undifferentiated pleomorphic/spindle sarcomas (one of which was radiation-induced). Six tumors showed characteristic diagnostic translocations. We herein also described the first case of thyroid malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with RBM10-TFE3 fusion in a 35-year-old female patient. Thyroid mesenchymal tumors, benign or malignant, are rare with a broad spectrum of possible diagnoses. A comprehensive examination to include histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular testing is essential for the correct diagnosis and to distinguish them from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. PEComa may occur as a primary tumor of the thyroid gland, expanding the histologic spectrum of thyroid mesenchymal tumors.
- Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa)
- Solitary fibrous tumor