Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH): Design and Rationale of a Clinical Trial

Urinary Stone Disease Research Network

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Rationale & Objective: Although maintaining high fluid intake is an effective low-risk intervention for the secondary prevention of urinary stone disease, many patients with stones do not increase their fluid intake. Study Design: We describe the rationale and design of the Prevention of Urinary Stones With Hydration (PUSH) Study, a randomized trial of a multicomponent behavioral intervention program to increase and maintain high fluid intake. Participants are randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to the intervention or control arm. The target sample size is 1,642 participants. Setting & Participants: Adults and adolescents 12 years and older with a symptomatic stone history and low urine volume are eligible. Exclusion criteria include infectious or monogenic causes of urinary stone disease and comorbid conditions precluding increased fluid intake. Interventions: All participants receive usual care and a smart water bottle with smartphone application. Participants in the intervention arm receive a fluid intake prescription and an adaptive program of behavioral interventions, including financial incentives, structured problem solving, and other automated adherence interventions. Control arm participants receive guideline-based fluid instructions. Outcomes: The primary end point is recurrence of a symptomatic stone during 24 months of follow-up. Secondary end points include changes in radiographic stone burden, 24-hour urine output, and urinary symptoms. Limitations: Periodic 24-hour urine volumes may not fully reflect daily behavior. Conclusions: With its highly novel features, the PUSH Study will address an important health care problem. Funding: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Trial Registration: Registered at with study number NCT03244189.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)898-906.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • RCT design
  • Urinary stone disease (USD)
  • behavioral intervention
  • financial incentive
  • fluid prescription
  • health coaching
  • increased fluid intake
  • kidney disease prevention
  • kidney stone
  • lifestyle change
  • lower urinary tract symptoms
  • modifiable risk factor
  • randomized clinical trial (RCT)
  • stone recurrence
  • urine volume


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