Prevention of readmission in elderly patients with congestive heart failure - Results of a prospective, randomized pilot study

Michael W. Rich, Janice M. Vinson, Jane C. Sperry, Atul S. Shah, Lisa R. Spinner, Mina K. Chung, Victor Da Vila-Roman

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193 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To determine the feasibility and potential impact of a non-pharmacologic multidisciplinary intervention for reducing hospital readmissions in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial, with 2:1 assignment to the study intervention or usual care. Setting: 550-bed secondary and tertiary care university teaching hospital. Patients and participants: 98 patients ≥70 years of age (mean 79±6 years) admitted with documented congestive heart failure. Interventions: Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment strategy consisting of intensive teaching by a geriatric cardiac nurse, a detailed review of medications by a geriatric cardiologist with specific recommendations designed to improve medication compliance and reduce side effects, early consultation with social services to facilitate discharge planning, dietary teaching by a hospital dietician, and close follow-up after discharge by home care and the study team. Measurements and main results: All patients were followed for 90 days after initial hospital discharge. The primary study endpoints were rehospitalization within the 90-day interval and the cumulative number of days hospitalized during follow-up. The 90-day readmission rate was 33.3% (21.7%-44.9%) for the patients receiving the study intervention (n=63) compared with 45.7% (29.2-62.2%) for the control patients (n=35). The mean number of days hospitalized was 4.3±1.1 (2.1-6.5) for the treated patients vs. 5.7±2.0 (1.8-9.6) for the usual-care patients. In a prospectively defined subgroup of patients at intermediate risk for readmission (n=61), readmissions were reduced by 42.2% (from 47.6% to 27.5%; p=0.10), and the average number of hospital days during follow-up decreased from 6.7±32 days to 3.2±1.2 days (p=NS). Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to reducing repetitive hospitalizations in elderly patients with congestive heart failure may lead to a reduction in readmissions and hospital days, particularly in patients at moderate risk for early rehospitalization. Further evaluation of this treatment strategy, including an assessment of the cost-effectiveness, is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-590
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1993

Keywords

  • cost containment
  • elderly
  • heart failure, congestive
  • hospital readmissions
  • prevention

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