Osteoporosis is a common and preventable disorder of the older adult skeleton that predisposes an individual to an increased risk of fracture, a major cause of disability in older adults. Most patients with osteoporosis have an identifiable cause of bone loss. Factors contributing to osteoporotic fractures are more often associated with disordered neuromuscular function affecting postural stability than disordered skeletal integrity. Effective pharmacologic agents are available for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Prevention of osteoporotic fractures in the elderly, particularly nonvertebral fractures, presents unique challenges. Fracture prevention requires identification and management of disorders that contribute to falls, the prevention of falls, and reduction of the impact force of falls. Thus, both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies need to be employed. The presence of multiple co-morbidities further complicates management of osteoporosis in the elderly population.