Objective: To demonstrate that the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to interrupt transmission of HIV-1 from mother to baby is effective, safe, and feasible in a remote rural region of China. Methods: Between November 2005 and May 2009, we enrolled 279 HIV-1-infected pregnant women to receive HAART to interrupt transmission of HIV-1 to their newborns across 16 counties in Yunnan. All women were started on triple combination therapy and submitted to regular blood draws to monitor CD4 T cells and viral load in their blood plasma. Infants received a single dose of nevirapine at birth and 1 or 4 weeks of zidovudine depending on the length of the mother's regimen. Exclusive formula feeding was recommended, and families were provided with 12-month supply of formula. Mothers and infant pairs were followed for 12-18 months postdelivery. Results: Of 279 enrolled HIV-infected women, 222 (79.6%) were identified and started treatment by 28 weeks of pregnancy. Viral load was undetectable at time of delivery for 62.4% (136 of 218) at delivery, with a mean 1.76 log viral load reduction between enrollment and delivery. Two of 193 babies (1.0%) who have already been tested became infected with HIV-1. Seven of 223 babies have died. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, cumulative one-year survival was 96.3%. Conclusions: The project demonstrated that HAART for all infected pregnant women is effective with a vertical transmission rate of ∼1%. Thus, this project provides a model for China to scale up its efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.