Prevalence and Load of the Campylobacter Genus in Infants and Associated Household Contacts in Rural Eastern Ethiopia: a Longitudinal Study from the Campylobacter Genomics and Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (CAGED) Project

Loïc Deblais, Amanda Ojeda, Mussie Brhane, Bahar Mummed, Kedir A. Hassen, Belisa Usmael Ahmedo, Yenenesh Demisie Weldesenbet, Jafer Kedir Amin, Ibsa Abdusemed Ahmed, Ibsa Aliyi Usmane, Efrah Ali Yusuf, Abadir Jemal Seran, Fayo I. Abrahim, Halengo T. Game, Ballo A. Mummed, Meri M. Usmail, Kunuza Adem Umer, Mawardi M. Dawid, Wondwossen Gebreyes, Nigel FrenchJemal Yousuf Hassen, Kedir Teji Roba, Abdulmuen Mohammed, Getnet Yimer, Cyrus Saleem, Dehao Chen, Nitya Singh, Mark J. Manary, Sarah L. McKune, Arie H. Havelaar, Gireesh Rajashekara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In our previous cross-sectional study, multiple species of Campylobacter were detected (88%) in stool samples from children (12 to 14 months of age) in rural eastern Ethiopia. This study assessed the temporal fecal carriage of Campylobacter in infants and identified putative reservoirs associated with these infections in infants from the same region. The prevalence and load of Campylobacter were determined using genus-specific real-time PCR. Stool samples from 106 infants (n = 1,073) were collected monthly from birth until 376 days of age (DOA). Human stool samples (mothers and siblings), livestock feces (cattle, chickens, goats, and sheep), and environmental samples (soil and drinking water) from the 106 households were collected twice per household (n = 1,644). Campylobacter was most prevalent in livestock feces (goats, 99%; sheep, 98%; cattle, 99%; chickens, 93%), followed by human stool samples (siblings, 91%; mothers, 83%; infants, 64%) and environmental samples (soil, 58%; drinking water, 43%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in infant stool samples significantly increased with age, from 30% at 27 DOA to 89% at 360 DOA (1% increase/day in the odds of being colonized) (P , 0.001). The Campylobacter load increased linearly (P < 0.001) with age from 2.95 logs at 25 DOA to 4.13 logs at 360 DOA. Within a household, the Campylobacter load in infant stool samples was positively correlated with the load in mother stool samples (r2 = 0.18) and soil collected inside the house (r2 = 0.36), which were in turn both correlated with Campylobacter loads in chicken and cattle feces (0.60 , r2 , 0.63) (P < 0.01). In conclusion, a high proportion of infants are infected with Campylobacter in eastern Ethiopia, and contact with the mother and contaminated soil may be associated with early infections.

Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume89
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Keywords

  • Campylobacter
  • eastern Ethiopia
  • human stool
  • livestock feces
  • longitudinal study
  • real-time PCR

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