Prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in American football athletes participating in the national football league scouting combine

Derrick M. Knapik, Robert J. Gillespie, Michael J. Salata, James E. Voos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Bony augmentation of the anterior glenoid is used in athletes with recurrent shoulder instability and bone loss; however, the prevalence and impact of repair in elite American football athletes are unknown. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and impact of glenoid augmentation in athletes invited to the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine from 2012 to 2015. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 1311 athletes invited to the NFL Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated for history of either Bristow or Latarjet surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Athlete demographics, surgical history, imaging, and physical examination results were recorded using the NFL Combine database. Prospective participation data with regard to draft status, games played, games started, and status after the athletes’ first season in the NFL were gathered using publicly available databases. Results: Surgical repair was performed on 10 shoulders in 10 athletes (0.76%), with the highest prevalence in defensive backs (30%; n = 3). Deficits in shoulder motion were exhibited in 70% (n = 7) of athletes, while 40% (n = 4) had evidence of mild glenohumeral arthritis and 80% demonstrated imaging findings consistent with a prior instability episode (8 labral tears, 2 Hill-Sachs lesions). Prospectively, 40% (n = 4) of athletes were drafted into the NFL. In the first season after the combine, athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation were not found to be at significant risk for diminished participation with regard to games played or started when compared with athletes with no history of glenoid augmentation or athletes undergoing isolated shoulder soft tissue repair. After the conclusion of the first NFL season, 60% (n = 6 athletes) were on an active NFL roster. Conclusion: Despite being drafted at a lower rate than their peers, there were no significant limitations in NFL participation for athletes with a history of glenoid augmentation when compared with athletes without a history of shoulder surgery or those with isolated soft tissue shoulder repair. Glenohumeral arthritis and advanced imaging findings of labral tearing and Hill-Sachs lesions in elite American football players with a history of glenoid augmentation did not significantly affect NFL participation 1 year after the combine.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2325967117722945
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • American football
  • Augmentation
  • Coracoid
  • Glenoid
  • Shoulder instability


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