Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR

Dana E. Niles, Robert M. Sutton, Vinay M. Nadkarni, Andrew Glatz, Mathias Zuercher, Matthew R. Maltese, Joar Eilevstjønn, Benjamin S. Abella, Lance B. Becker, Robert A. Berg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend complete release between chest compressions (CC). Objective: Evaluate the hemodynamic effects of leaning (incomplete chest wall release) during CPR and the prevalence of leaning during CPR. Results: In piglet ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrests, 10% and 20% (1.8 kg and 3.6 kg, respectively), leaning during CPR increased right atrial pressures, decreased coronary perfusion pressures, and decreased cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow by nearly 50%. In contrast, residual leaning of a 260 g accelerometer/force feedback device did not adversely affect cardiac index or myocardial blood flow. Among 108 adult in-hospital CPR events, leaning ≥2.5 kg was demonstrable in 91% of the events and 12% of the evaluated CC. For 12 children with in-hospital CPR, 28% of CC had residual leaning ≥2.5 kg and 89% had residual leaning ≥0.5 kg. Conclusions: Leaning during CPR increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases coronary perfusion pressure, and decreases cardiac output and myocardial blood flow. Leaning is common during CPR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S23-S26
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
StatePublished - Dec 2011


  • CPR
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
  • Chest recoil
  • Children
  • Force transducer
  • Hemodynamics
  • Incomplete release
  • Intrathoracic pressure
  • Leaning
  • Pediatric


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