Purpose of review To update the knowledge on the risk factors and treatment options for choroidal neovascular membrane due to ocular histoplasmosis and to provide a treatment algorithm. Recent findings Smoking has been shown to be a strong risk factor in the development of choroidal neovascularization. Alleles that have been identified as a risk factor for the development of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration have not shown to be associated with Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome-related choroidal neovascularization. Treatment has largely moved away from submacular surgery and macular photocoagulation to antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Summary This review highlights the devastating vision loss that may occur in ocular histoplasmosis from the development of an atrophic scar at the fovea or following choroidal neovascularization. Many therapies have been tried with varied amounts of success. Antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy appears to be the gold-standard treatment with the possibility of combined photodynamic therapy in refractory cases.
- Antivascular endothelial growth factor
- Choroidal neovascularization
- Presumed ocular histoplasmosis