Presenting an atlas of Hunner lesions in interstitial cystitis which can be identified with office cystoscopy

Carrie Ronstrom, H. Henry Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Aim: To assist clinicians in proper visual diagnosis of Hunner lesions by providing an atlas of representative images of the variability in Hunner lesion appearance. Methods: Available cystoscopic images of Hunner lesions were reviewed from patients with interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) treated by a single clinician between 2011 and 2020. For most patients, initial cystoscopy was performed in the office under local anesthesia. Images were categorized by variations in appearance. Data including Hunner lesion descriptions and patient demographics were retrospectively collected from the medical record. Only patients who had images available, received triamcinolone injection and/or fulguration of Hunner lesions, and reported improvement of their symptoms following treatment were included in the atlas. Results: Thirty-one IC/BPS patients with Hunner lesions had cystoscopic images available for review. We created an atlas of representative images. Variations in appearance include classic lesions with or without a central coagulum, inflamed lesions, non-inflamed lesions, groupings of lesions, and lesions with a red waterfall bleeding appearance. Conclusion: There is variation in cystoscopic appearance of Hunner lesions. Most Hunner lesions can be identified during office visits using flexible cystoscopy and local anesthesia without hydrodistention or general anesthesia. Proper visual diagnosis of Hunner lesions is of upmost importance as these patients with IC/BPS respond greatly to endoscopic intervention. This atlas will serve as a reference for clinicians and researchers, so they are able to better identify and manage these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2394-2400
Number of pages7
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020


  • Hunner lesion
  • atlas
  • cystoscopy
  • ulcerative interstitial cystitis


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