Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome exhibits deficient activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase-B in cultured skin fibroblasts. Prenatal diagnosis was successfully attempted in two pregnancies of a consanguineous Chaldean couple whose first child is affected with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. In both instances, deficient arylsulfatase-B activity was observed in amniotic fluid cell cultures, and the diagnosis was confirmed by 35S-sulfate studies and postmortem enzymology and electron microscopy. The prenatal diagnosis of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome remains problematic. Residual activity of arylsulfatase-B in the affected homozygote can make interpretation difficult, and the behavior of many lysosomal enzymes varies greatly in response to tissue culture conditions and enzyme extraction processes.