Objective: Screening rates for type 2 diabetes after a pregnancy with gestational diabetes are inadequate. We aimed to determine how prenatal counseling on exercise, nutrition, and type 2 diabetes risk affects postpartum screening for diabetes. Methods: Using Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data from Colorado (2009-2011) and Massachusetts (2012-2013), we performed multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship between prenatal counseling and postpartum screening. Results: Among 556 women, prenatal counseling was associated with increased postpartum diabetes screening, after adjusting for age; parity; and receipt of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefits (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.0 [95% CI 1.4-6.5]). This effect was modified by race/ethnicity. Primiparity (AOR 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-4.1]) and advanced maternal age (AOR 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-3.8]) were associated with increased screening, and receiving WIC benefits was associated with decreased screening (AOR 0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.9]). Conclusions: In women with gestational diabetes, culturally appropriate counseling on future diabetes risk, nutrition, and exercise may enhance postpartum diabetes screening.