Intakes of vitamins A, C, and E, folate, and carotenoids have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of breast cancer. However, previous epidemiological studies on these nutrients and breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, and have included primarily postmenopausal women. We examined the intake of these nutrients in relation to breast cancer risk among 90,655 premenopausal women ages 26-46 years in 1991 in the Nurses' Health Study II. Nutrient intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1991 and in 1995. During 8 years of follow-up from 1991 to 1999, we documented 714 incident cases of invasive breast cancer. Overall, none of the vitamins and carotenoids was strongly related to a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, intake of vitamin A, including preformed vitamin A and carotenoids, was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among smokers; participants in the highest quintile of total vitamin A intake had a multivariate relative risk of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.12-0.62; P, test for trend <0.001; P, test for interaction <0.001) compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake. We found no evidence that higher intakes of vitamins C and E, and folate in early adult life reduce risk of breast cancer. However, intake of vitamin A may be related to a reduced risk of breast cancer among smokers.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention|
|State||Published - Aug 1 2003|