Background: This report introduces an unusual cause of kidney failure in a previously healthy pediatric patient. She developed thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that was diagnosed post-partum, requiring dialysis and eculizumab, with eventual recovery of kidney function ([chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3]. Case presentation: The patient was induced at term due to preeclampsia, with delivery complicated by severe postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony. She continued to have severe hypertension post-delivery and further developed acute kidney injury (AKI) with decreased urinary output and respiratory distress requiring dialysis therapy. Labs revealed hemolysis with elevated lactate dehydrogenase, low haptoglobin, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, but otherwise unremarkable immunology labs. Once clinically stabilized the patient underwent kidney biopsy, which was consistent with TMA. Treatment was initiated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody for terminal complement blockade. Her clinical status improved (including markers of hemolysis and inflammation) with kidney replacement therapy and complement blockade. On discharge, she had increasing urine output and was prescribed 3 day per week hemodialysis and twice monthly eculizumab infusions. By 6 weeks post-delivery, hemodialysis was discontinued and her eculizumab was weaned to monthly infusions. Eculizumab was discontinued at 12 months postpartum. Genetic testing for mutations of the complement system was negative. The patient has residual stage 3 CKD with stable kidney function, requiring two agents for blood pressure control, including an ACE inhibitor for antiproteinuric effect. Conclusions: This case report showcases an unusual cause of renal failure in a pediatric patient due to TMA in the post-partum period. She required intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) for a brief period, however she was treated successfully with eculizumab that was able to be weaned off 1 year after delivery. She has residual stage 3 CKD and no further signs or symptoms of TMA.
- Case report