Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to explore adolescent and adult women’s preferences for the content and delivery of public health messaging around bladder health. Materials and Methods: This was a directed content analysis of focus group data from the Study of Habits, Attitudes, Realities, and Experiences, which explored adolescent and adult women’s experiences, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to bladder health and function across the life course. This article reports an analysis of the ‘‘Public Health Messaging’’ code, which includes participants’ views on what information is needed about bladder health, attributes of messaging, and preferred locations and delivery methods. Results: Forty-four focus groups were conducted with 360 participants (ages 11–93 years) organized into six age groups. Across age groups, participants wanted messaging on maintaining bladder health and preventing bladder problems. They offered suggestions for a wide variety of methods to deliver bladder health information. Ideas for delivery methods fell into three broad categories: (1) traditional in-person modes of delivery, which included individual communication with providers in clinical settings and group-based methods in schools and other community settings where adolescent and adult women naturally gather; (2) internet-based website and social media delivery methods; and (3) static (noninteractive) modes of delivery such as pamphlets. Participants recommended the development of multiple delivery methods to be tailored for specific audiences. Conclusions: These findings can inform development of broad ranging public health messaging tailored to audiences of all ages with a goal of engaging adolescent and adult women across the bladder health risk spectrum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1120-1135
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023


  • adolescents
  • bladder health
  • lower urinary tract symptoms
  • public health
  • qualitative research
  • women


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