Background: We hypothesized that among septic ICU patients with Acinetobacter spp. bacteremia (Ac-BSI), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAc) increase risk for inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy (non-IAAT), and non-IAAT is a predictor of hospital death. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult septic ICU patients with Ac-BSI. Non-IAAT was defined as exposure to initially prescribed antibiotics not active against the pathogen based on in vitro susceptibility testing, and having no exposure to appropriate antimicrobial treatment within 24 hours of drawing positive culture. We compared patients who died to those who survived, and derived regression models to identify predictors of hospital mortality and of non-IAAT. Results: Out of 131 patients with Ac-BSI, 65 (49.6%) died (non-survivors, NS). NS were older (63 [51, 76] vs. 56 [45, 66] years, p = 0.014), and sicker than survivors (S): APACHE II (24 [19, 31] vs. 18 [13, 22], p < 0.001) and Charlson (5 [2, 8] vs. 3 [1, 6], p = 0.009) scores. NS were also more likely than S to require pressors (75.4% vs. 42.4%, p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (75.4% vs. 53.0%, p = 0.008). Both CRAc (69.2% vs. 47.0%, p = 0.010) and non-IAAT (83.1% vs. 59.1%, p = 0.002) were more frequent among NS than S. In multivariate analyses, non-IAAT emerged as an independent predictor of hospital death (risk ratio [RR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.58), while CRAc was the single strongest predictor of non-IAAT (RR 2.66, 95% CI 2.43-2.72). Conclusions: Among septic ICU patients with Ac-BSI, non-IAAT predicts mortality. Carbapenem resistance appears to mediate the relationship between non-IAAT and mortality.
- Acinetobacter spp
- Aevere sepsis
- Carbapenem resistance
- Inappropriate initial antibiotic therapy