Background Cardiac catheterization is the standard of care procedure for diagnosis, choice of therapy, and longitudinal follow-up of children and adults with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the procedure is invasive and has risks associated with both the procedure and recovery period. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for catastrophic adverse outcomes in children with PH undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods We studied children and young adults up to 21 years of age with PH undergoing 1 or more cardiac catheterization at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information Systems database between 2007 and 2012. Using mixed-effects multivariable regression, we assessed the association between pre-specified subject- and procedure-level covariates and the risk of the composite outcome of death or initiation of mechanical circulatory support within 1 day of cardiac catheterization after adjustment for patient- and procedure-level factors. Results A total of 6,339 procedures performed on 4,401 patients with a diagnosis of PH from 38 of 43 centers contributing data to the Pediatric Health Information Systems database were included. The observed risk of composite outcome was 3.5%. In multivariate modeling, the adjusted risk of the composite outcome was 3.3%. Younger age at catheterization, cardiac operation in the same admission as the catheterization, pre-procedural systemic vasodilator infusion, and hemodialysis were independently associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Pre-procedural use of pulmonary vasodilators was associated with reduced risk of composite outcome. Conclusions The risk of cardiac catheterization in children and young adults with PH is high relative to previously reported risk in other pediatric populations. The risk is influenced by patient-level factors. Further research is necessary to determine whether knowledge of these factors can be translated into practices that improve outcomes for children with PH.
- extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- outcomes research
- pediatric cardiology
- Pediatric Health Information Systems Database