Prediction of 3-Dimensional Coverage Surface Area of the Femoral Head in Hip Dysplasia Through Conventional Computed Tomography

Tomoyuki Kamenaga, Lucas Ritacco, Pablo A. Slullitel, Chadi Nahal, Jeffrey J. Nepple, John C. Clohisy, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Assessment of 3-dimensional (3D) femoral head coverage is critical in evaluating, preoperative planning, and treating hip dysplasia. Purpose: To (1) propose a mathematical model to establish 3D femoral head coverage using conventional computed tomography (CT), (2) determine the correlation of 2D parameters with 3D coverage, and (3) characterize the patterns of dysplasia based on 3D morphology. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We identified 30 patients (n = hips) with symptomatic dysplasia and 30 patients (n = hips) without dysplasia. Patients with dysplastic hips were matched with regard to sex, age, and body mass index to those with nondysplastic hips. Preoperative CTs were analyzed using 3D software, and 3D femoral head surface area coverage (FHSAC; in %) was assessed in 4 quadrant zones: anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral. To assess lateral coverage of the femoral head, we introduced the anterolateral femoral head coverage angle (ALFC) and the posterolateral femoral head coverage angle (PLFC). Results: Reduced femoral head coverage was more pronounced in dysplastic versus nondysplastic hips in the anterolateral quadrant (18% vs 40.7%, respectively) and posterolateral quadrant (35.8% vs 56.9%, respectively) (P <.0001 for both). Dysplastic hips had smaller ALFC and PLFC (18.4° vs 38.7°; P <.0001; 47.2° vs 72.3°; P =.0002). Anterolateral and posterolateral FHSAC were strongly correlated with the ALFC (r = 0.88; P <.0001) and the PLFC (r = 0.82; P <.0001) along with the lateral center-edge angle (anterolateral, r = 0.75; P <.0001; posterolateral, r = 0.73; P <.0001). Prediction models established for FHSAC had strong agreement with explanatory CT variables (anterolateral: r = 0.91; P <.0001; posterolateral: r = 0.90; P <.0001). The cutoff values for anterolateral and posterolateral FHSAC were 25% and 41%, respectively. In dysplastic hips, global deficiency was most common (15/30 hips), 9 hips showed an anterolateral deficiency, and 4 hips had a posterolateral deficiency pattern. Conclusion: The ALFC and The PLFC were strongly correlated with 3D lateral FHSAC and were able to predict 3D coverage accurately.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • 3-dimensional
  • femoral head coverage
  • hip dysplasia
  • periacetabular osteotomy


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