Predicting Rates of Angular Correction after Hemiepiphysiodesis in Patients with X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets

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Purpose: Patients with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) often develop coronal plane knee deformities despite medical treatment. Hemiepiphysiodesis is an effective way to correct coronal plane knee deformities in skeletally immature patients, but a full understanding of the rate of angular correction after hemiepiphysiodesis in XLH patients, compared with idiopathic cases is lacking. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of 24 XLH patients and 37 control patients without metabolic bone disease who underwent hemiepiphysiodesis. All patients were treated with standard-of-care medical therapy (SOC=active vitamin D and phosphate salt supplementation) in our clinical research center and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up after hemiepiphysiodesis. Demographic data as well as complications, repeat procedures, or recurrence/overcorrection were recorded. Standing lower extremity radiographs were evaluated before the surgical intervention and at subsequent hardware removal or skeletal maturity, whichever came first. Mean axis deviation, knee zone, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), and medial proximal tibial angle were measured on each radiograph. The rate of angular correction was calculated as the change in mLDFA and medial proximal tibial angle over the duration of treatment. Results: The magnitude of the initial deformity of the distal femur was greater in XLH patients as compared with control for varus (XLH mLDFA 97.7 +/- 4.9 vs. Control mLDFA 92.0 +/- 2.0 degrees) and valgus (XLH mLDFA 78.7 +/- 6.2 vs. Controls mLDFA 83.6 +/- 3.2 degrees). The rate of correction was dependent on age. When correcting for age, XLH patients corrected femoral deformity at a 15% to 36% slower rate than control patients for the mLDFA (>3 y growth remaining XLH 0.71 +/- 0.46 vs. control 0.84 +/- 0.27 degrees/month, <3 y growth remaining XLH 0.37 +/- 0.33 vs. control 0.58 +/- 0.41 degrees/month). No significant differences were seen in the rate of proximal tibia correction. XLH patients were less likely to end treatment in zone 1 (55.0% XLH vs. 77.8% control). XLH patients had longer treatment times than controls (19.5 +/- 10.7 vs. 12.6 +/- 7.0 mu, P value <0.001), a higher average number of secondary procedures than controls (1.33 +/- 1.44 vs. 0.62 +/- 0.92 number of procedures), a higher rate of overcorrection than controls (29.2% vs. 5.4%), and a higher rate of subsequent corrective osteotomy than controls (37.5% vs. 8.1%). There was no significant difference in the rate of complications between groups (8.3% vs. 5.4%). Conclusions: Patients with XLH undergoing hemiepiphysiodesis have a 15% to 36% slower rate of femoral deformity correction that results in longer treatment times, a higher likelihood to undergo more secondary procedures, and a lower likelihood to reach neutral mechanical alignment. Significance: This study provides important information to guide the timing and treatment of patients with XLH and coronal plane knee deformities. In addition, results from this study can be educational for families and patients with respect to anticipated treatment times, success rates of the procedure, complication rate, and likelihood of needing repeat procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-385
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023


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