Objective: To determine correlates of compliance with follow-up recommendations after colposcopy. Methods: Between October 1, 1992, and June 30, 1997, management recommendations were made to 451 consecutive women who attended a resident colposcopy clinic. Compliance was determined after 8-12 months. Correlates of compliance were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Recommendations included repeat cytology in 6 months for 252 women, loop excision for 114, conization for 27, repeat colposcopy for 51, other for three, and not recorded for four. Rates of ever complying were 81% for loop excision, 85% for conization, 62% for repeat colposcopy, and 36% for repeat cytology. In multivariate analysis, the only significant predictors of compliance were history of genital herpes simplex infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05, 0.86, P = .03) and the nature of the recommendation (OR 4.73; CI 2.51, 8.92 for loop excision; OR 8.72; CI 2.57, 29.6 for conization; and OR 2.53; CI 1.30, 4.93 for repeat colposcopy, all against observation, P < .001). Conclusion: After colposcopy, women were more likely to comply with earlier, more intensive interventions, although the relative effect of follow-up interval and intervention could not be distinguished. Copyright (C) 1999 The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.