Cancer neoantigens are antigens that result from somatic mutations present in individual cancers. Neoantigens are considered important targets for cancer immunotherapy because of their immunogenicity and lack of expression in normal tissues. Nextgeneration sequencing technologies and computational analysis have recently made neoantigen discovery possible. Although neoantigens are important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy, neoantigen vaccines are currently being investigated in preclinical models and early-phase human clinical trials. Preliminary results from these clinical trials demonstrate that dendritic cell, synthetic long peptide, and RNA-based neoantigen vaccines are safe, and capable of inducing both CD8+ and CD4+ neoantigen-specific T-cell responses. We and others are testing neoantigen vaccines in melanoma, breast cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and other cancer types. Since cancers have evolved mechanisms to escape immune control, it is particularly important to study the efficacy of neoantigen vaccines in combination with other immunotherapies including checkpoint blockade therapy, and immune therapies targeting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)xii11-xii17
JournalAnnals of Oncology
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017


  • Clinical trial
  • Immunotherapy
  • Neoantigen
  • cancer vaccine


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