Background: Patients with colorectal cancer commonly suffer from complex psychological distress. Elevated distress may be linked to systemic biomarkers. We investigated associations of biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis with cancer-related distress (CTXD) score. Methods: N = 315 patients (stage I–IV) from 2 centers of the ColoCare Study were included: Huntsman Cancer Institute and University of Heidelberg. Biomarkers (e.g., IL6, VEGF-A, VEGF-D) were measured in serum collected pre-surgery and 12 months thereafter. The CTXD overall score and 4 subscales were collected 12 months after surgery and dichotomized to investigate biomarkers as predictors of distress 12 months after surgery; adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, tumor stage, center, and baseline levels of biomarkers. Results: Doubling of IL6 predicted future increased risk of overall distress [odds ratio (OR), 1.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02–1.41; P = 0.03]. VEGF-A–predicted future increased risk of high family strain (VEGF-A: OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01–1.44; P = 0.04) and VEGF-D was associated with medical and financial demands (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01–1.74; P = 0.03). Conclusions: This is the first study to show that systemic biomarkers are significantly associated with future CTXD score. Distress was not measured at baseline; we cannot rule out ongoing associations of inflammation and distress throughout treatment versus a direct effect of inflammation on distress. Nonetheless, these data add to evidence that biobehavioral processes interact and that systemic biomarkers are associated with cancer-related distress one year after surgery.