Pramipexole in levodopa-treated Parkinson disease patients of African, Asian, and Hispanic heritage

Caroline Tanner, Cynthia Comella, Cornelia Kamp, Karl Kieburtz, David Oakes, Frederick Marshall, Denni Day, Julie Carter, Rajesh Pahwa, Ira Shoulson, Daniel Truong, An Hao Tran, Karen Thompson, Lisa M. Shulman, Dinorah Rodriguez, Mariella Fernandez, Carmen Serrano Ramos, Adelma Rivera Cruz, Giselle Petzinger, Sheila EverettJayaraman Rao, Clare Das, Kapil Sethi, Kathy Ligon, Cheryl Waters, Mickie Welsh, Andrew Feigin, Joel Perlmutter, Lori McGee-Minnich, Kenneth Marek, Susan Broshjeit, Janet Cellar, Howard Hurtig, Mary Matthews, Kathleen Shannon, Kimberly Janko, George Paulson, Carolyn Weeks, Carson Reider, Richard Trosch, Kathie Mistura, William Koller, Marian Evatt, Colleen Wood, Ronald Pfeiffer, Sara Rast, Brenda Pfeiffer, Alicia Brocht, Cindy Casaceli, Andrea Freimuth, Karen Hodgeman, Arthur Watts, Sam Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the effects of antiparkinsonian drugs in US racial or ethnic minorities. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of adjunctive pramipexole in Parkinson disease (PD) patients of African, Asian, or Hispanic heritage stably treated with levodopa. DESIGN: Multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Seventeen Parkinson Study Group sites in the United States and Puerto Rico. PATIENTS: One hundred forty-four PD patients of African, Asian, or Hispanic heritage enrolled from January 1997 to August 1998 and observed until October 1998. INTERVENTION: Subjects received pramipexole or placebo (3:1 ratio), 0.375 mg/d to a maximum tolerated dose (≤4.5 mg/d) over a 6-week period, achieving optimum levels (0.375, 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg/d) in the 4-week maintenance period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in the sum of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale parts 2 (activities of daily living) and 3 (motor) from baseline to week 10. RESULTS: Parkinsonism improved (mean [SD] reduction in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living + motor score at 10 weeks, 10.27 [11.96] pramipexole vs 6.54 [13.58] placebo, P = 0.012) and was similar in each group. Adverse events occurred in 85.3% on pramipexole and 68.6% on placebo. Hallucinations and insomnia were more common on pramipexole than placebo (18 vs 0, P = 0.023, and 15 vs 0, P = 0.045, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Pramipexole is an effective adjunctive antiparkinsonian therapy in PD patients of African, Asian, and Hispanic heritage. Tolerability and safety overall were similar among the groups, but differences in profiles of adverse effects and tolerability were suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-85
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Neuropharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2007


  • African American
  • Asian
  • Hispanic
  • Parkinson disease
  • Pramipexole
  • Randomized clinical trials


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