Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a rare form of congenital heart disease in which the pulmonary veins drain by various pathways to the right atrium instead of the left atrium. Postoperative obstruction of the pulmonary veins is a known complication. Identifying risk factors for morbidity and mortality is important for counseling and monitoring. We describe a pattern of postoperative obstruction in a specific arrangement of mixed TAPVC. Five patients with a type of mixed TAPVC, namely, three pulmonary veins connecting to the coronary sinus and the left upper pulmonary vein (LUPV) connecting to the innominate vein, were identified over an 11-year period at our institution. Two additional patients with this TAPVC arrangement were cared for at our institution after having surgery at other institutions. Of these, one patient received only comfort care at birth due to other clinical issues. The six other patients underwent surgical unroofing of the coronary sinus. The anomalous LUPV was not addressed during the initial surgery in any of these cases. Following repair, one patient died from non-cardiac reasons. The remaining five patients all developed obstruction of the repaired pulmonary veins with decompression through the unrepaired LUPV, requiring surgical revision. Three patients underwent a second reoperation as well. Three of the six repaired patients also developed refractory atrial arrhythmias. This cohort suggests that this mixed TAPVC pattern predisposes patients to obstruction after surgical repair. Further investigation may aid pediatric cardiologists in risk-stratifying and counseling these patients. Alternative surgical approaches may need to be considered.
- Heart defects
- Pulmonary veins
- Pulmonary venous obstruction
- Risk factors
- Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection