Color Doppler ultrasound (US) with point-spectral analysis was performed on eight patients with postbiopsy renal transplant arteriovenous fistulas. Waveform analysis of the supplying artery documented decreased resistive indices in all cases and increased flow velocities in seven. The peak-systolic flow velocity in the arteries supplying the fistulas ranged from 55 to 180 cm/sec (mean, 92 cm/sec), while the range in normal arteries was 20-52 cm/sec (mean, 32 cm/sec). The resistive indices of the arteries supplying the fistulas ranged from 0.31 to 0.50 (mean, 0.45), while the resistive indices of the normal arteries ranged from 0.60 to 0.92 (mean, 0.74). Arterialization of the venous waveform from the draining vein was also documented in all cases. In six cases the increased flow velocities resulted in increased color saturation toward white in the supplying artery (n = 2) or in both the artery and the draining vein (n = 4), which was detectable on the real-time image. In six cases, flow turbulence resulted in localized tissue vibration, which appeared as random color assignment in extravascular renal parenchyma adjacent to the fistula. Knowledge of these imaging and Doppler characteristics should aid in the identification of renal transplant arteriovenous fistulas with color Doppler US.