The clinical syndrome of heart failure is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response that contributes to end organ damage in the heart and circulation and can thus lead to worsening heart failure. The ensemble of inflammatory mediators that have been detected in heart failure patients include pro-inflammatory cytokines and their cognate receptors, as well as molecules secreted/released by macrophages (galectin-3 and pentraxin-3). Inflammatory biomarkers correlate with disease severity and prognosis across the broad spectrum of heart failure syndromes. Given the proliferation of new biomarkers that predict disease severity and prognosis in heart failure, it is reasonable to ask whether there is a current role for measuring inflammatory mediators in heart failure. This review will attempt to address this question, as well as review several novel approaches that have utilized inflammatory biomarkers to enhance risk stratification and prognosis in heart failure patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-492
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Biomarkers
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Cytokine receptors
  • Galectin-3
  • Heart failure
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukins
  • Pentraxin-3
  • Pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • Tumor necrosis factor
  • sST2


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