Population pharmacokinetic modelling and simulation of tranexamic acid in adult trauma patients

Gideon Stitt, Philip Spinella, Grant V. Bochicchio, Ian Roberts, Kevin J. Downes, Athena F. Zuppa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: The aim of this study is to describe the disposition of tranexamic acid (TXA) in adult trauma patients and derive a dosing regimen that optimizes exposure based on a predefined exposure target. Methods: We performed a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) analysis of participants enrolled in the Tranexamic Acid Mechanisms and Pharmacokinetics in Traumatic Injury (TAMPITI) trial (≥18 years with traumatic injury, given ≥1 blood product and/or requiring immediate transfer to the operating room) who were randomized to a single dose of either 2 or 4 g of TXA ≤2 h from time of injury. PopPK analysis was conducted using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM). Simulations were then performed using the final model to generate estimated plasma TXA concentrations in 1000 simulated participants. Dosing schemes were evaluated to determine maintenance of TXA plasma concentrations >10 mg/L for ≥8 h after administration of the initial dose. Results: TXA PK was best described by a two-compartment model with proportional residual error and allometric scaling on all parameters. Platelet count, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and interleukin-8 concentration were significant covariates on TXA clearance. Based on simulations, a 2 g IV bolus dose, repeated 3 h later, best achieved the target exposure. Conclusions: According to simulations from a popPK model of TXA, a 2 g IV bolus with a repeated dose 3 h later would be most likely to maintain concentrations >10 mg/L for 8 h in >95% of adult trauma patients and should be considered for patients with ongoing haemorrhage.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • clinical pharmacology
  • emergency medicine
  • pharmacokinetics


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