INTRODUCTION: Pilon fractures occur through high-energy axial-loading trauma and are frequently associated with complications. The goal of this study was to assess whether anterior impaction (AI) tibial pilon fractures are associated with increased rates of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), secondary surgeries, and lower patient-reported outcomes compared with patients with non-AI pilon fractures. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 52 pilon fractures in 50 patients were included. The average follow-up was 25 months (range, 12 to 62 in non-AI and 12 to 66 in AI). The Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) score for PTOA, tibiotalar ratio for anterior-posterior talar subluxation, coronal tibiotalar angle, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System score, and rates of secondary surgeries and infection were assessed. RESULTS: The AI group showed radiographic evidence of more advanced PTOA at the final follow-up (KL score 3.1 vs. 2.5, P = 0.021) and a higher rate of implant removal for pain (39% vs. 13%, P = 0.030). AI also had greater anterior talar subluxation on preoperative (P < 0.001) and final follow-up radiographs (P = 0.026). A higher KL score was associated with greater anterior talar displacement on preoperative (r = -0.421, P = 0.003) and final follow-up radiographs (r = -0.359, P < 0.009). No differences were seen in 1-year Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scores. DISCUSSION: AI pilon fractures are associated with recurrent anterior talar subluxation, more severe PTOA, and a higher rate of implant removal for pain compared with non-AI fractures.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2022|