The study examines the impact of the introduction of 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV10) into Bangladesh's national vaccine program. PCV10 is administered to children under 1 year-old; the scheduled ages of administration are at 6, 10, and 18 weeks. The study is conducted in ~770,000 population containing ~90,000 <5 children in Sylhet, Bangladesh and has five objectives: 1) To collect data on community-based pre-PCV incidence rates of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in 0-59 month-old children in Sylhet, Bangladesh; 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of PCV10 introduction on Vaccine Type (VT) IPD in 3-59 month-old children using an incident case-control study design. Secondary aims include measuring the effects of PCV10 introduction on all IPD in 3-59 month-old children using case-control study design, and quantifying the emergence of Non Vaccine Type IPD; 3) To evaluate the effectiveness of PCV10 introduction on chest radiograph-confirmed pneumonia in children 3-35 months old using incident case-control study design. We will estimate the incidence trend of clinical and radiologically-confirmed pneumonia in 3-35 month-old children in the study area before and after introduction of PCV10; 4) To determine the feasibility and utility of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia in a large sample of children in a resource-limited setting. We will also evaluate the effectiveness of PCV10 introduction on ultrasound-confirmed pneumonia in 3-35 month-old children using an incident case-control design and to examine the incidence trend of ultrasound-confirmed pneumonia in 3-35 month-old children in the study area before and after PCV10 introduction; and 5) To determine the direct and indirect effects of vaccination status on nasopharyngeal colonization on VT pneumococci among children with pneumonia. This paper presents the methodology. The study will allow us to conduct a comprehensive and robust assessment of the impact of national introduction of PCV10 on pneumococcal disease in Bangladesh.
- Impact assessment
- Invasive pneumococcal disease
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- Radiograph confirmed pneumonia
- Ultrasound confirmed pneumonia