Platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene transcription is mediated by positive and negative regulatory regions in the promoter

D. M. Kaetzel, R. S. Maul, B. Liu, D. Bonthron, R. A. Fenstermaker, D. W. Coyne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a disulphide-linked heterodimer of two polypeptide chains, the A and B chains, which are encoded by genes on separate chromosomes. The A-chain gene is transcribed in a number of transformed and non-transformed cell lines and is inducible by a wide variety of growth factors, cytokines and other mitogenic agonists. To localize DNA elements that mediate basal transcription in the promoter regulatory region of the A-chain gene, we have employed 5'-endpoint deletion mutagenesis and transient expression analysis in the renal epithelial cell line BSC-1 (African green monkey). Studies conducted in this cell line, which expresses high concentrations of PDGF A-chain mRNA, reveal a positive regulatory element (PRE) in a GC-rich stretch of the A-chain promoter between -82 and -40, relative to the transcription start site. Two discrete regions of the promoter were identified as negative regulatory elements (NREs), located between -1029 and -880 (NRE1) and between -1800 and -1029 (NRE2). The -1800 to -812 region, which contains both NREs, functions as a potent NRE when relocated in either orientation adjacent to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter, reducing transcription activity by 60% in the positive orientation and 85% in the negative orientation. Comparison of BSC-1 cells and Saos-2 cells (human osteogenic sarcoma), which do not express significant quantities of PDGF A-chain mRNA or protein, indicates that basal transcription of the gene is determined by enhancer activity mediated by the GC-rich region rather than through de-repression of the upstream NREs. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays reveal a complex pattern of nuclear protein binding to the GC-rich PRE (-73 to -46). Competition studies conducted with mutant oligonucleotides that alternately disrupt consensus binding sites for Sp-1 or Egr-1 demonstrate a requirement for the presence of an Sp1-like core sequence (GGCGGG) but not Egr-1/Krox-24 [GCG(G/T)GGGCG] for the formation of specific DNA-protein complexes. Our observations suggest that basal transcription of the A-chain gene in renal epithelial cells is achieved through active enhancement, mediated by a GC-rich PRE and nuclear proteins that bind to Sp-1-like consensus DNA sequences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-327
Number of pages7
JournalBiochemical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1994


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