Brachial plexus injuries are devastating and usually result from high-energy trauma in young patients. Clinicians treating brachial plexus injuries need to recognize the pattern of injury presenting in each patient. Most injuries can be described as either supraclavicular or infraclavicular. The specific injury is determined by means of a precise workup, including careful physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and imaging studies; a thorough workup is essential for successful preoperative planning. Priorities need to be identified and matched with available resources in each patient. A growing number of good treatment alternatives are available. Finally, counseling patients toward realistic expectations is a critical component of preparation for surgery.