PIGO-CDG: A case study with a new genotype, expansion of the phenotype, literature review, and nosological considerations

Rodrigo Tzovenos Starosta, Nino Kerashvili, Cassandra Pruitt, Matthew J. Schultz, Suzanne W. Boyer, Eva Morava, Maria Laura Duque Lasio, Dorothy K. Grange

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class O protein (PIGO) enzyme is an important step in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), which is essential for the membrane anchoring of several proteins. Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in PIGO lead to a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) characterized by global developmental delay, an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase levels, congenital anomalies including anorectal, genitourinary, and limb malformations in most patients; this phenotype has been alternately called “Mabry syndrome” or “hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome 2.” We report a 22-month-old female with PIGO deficiency caused by novel PIGO variants. In addition to the Mabry syndrome phenotype, our patient's clinical picture was complicated by intermittent hypoglycemia with signs of functional hyperinsulinism, severe secretory diarrhea, and osteopenia with a pathological fracture, thus, potentially expanding the known phenotype of this disorder, although more studies are necessary to confirm these associations. We also provide an updated review of the literature, and propose unifying the nomenclature of PIGO deficiency as “PIGO-CDG,” which reflects its pathophysiology and position in the broad scope of metabolic disorders and congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-433
Number of pages10
JournalJIMD Reports
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Mabry syndrome
  • congenital disorder of glycosylation
  • diarrhea
  • glycophosphatidylinositol
  • hyperphosphatasia
  • hypoglycemia


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