Phytochromes transmit photoperiod information via the evening complex in Brachypodium

Mingjun Gao, Yunlong Lu, Feng Geng, Cornelia Klose, Anne Marie Staudt, He Huang, Duy Nguyen, Hui Lan, Han Lu, Todd C. Mockler, Dmitri A. Nusinow, Andreas Hiltbrunner, Eberhard Schäfer, Philip A. Wigge, Katja E. Jaeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Daylength is a key seasonal cue for animals and plants. In cereals, photoperiodic responses are a major adaptive trait, and alleles of clock genes such as PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) and EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) have been selected for in adapting barley and wheat to northern latitudes. How monocot plants sense photoperiod and integrate this information into growth and development is not well understood. Results: We find that phytochrome C (PHYC) is essential for flowering in Brachypodium distachyon. Conversely, ELF3 acts as a floral repressor and elf3 mutants display a constitutive long day phenotype and transcriptome. We find that ELF3 and PHYC occur in a common complex. ELF3 associates with the promoters of a number of conserved regulators of flowering, including PPD1 and VRN1. Consistent with observations in barley, we are able to show that PPD1 overexpression accelerates flowering in short days and is necessary for rapid flowering in response to long days. PHYC is in the active Pfr state at the end of the day, but we observe it undergoes dark reversion over the course of the night. Conclusions: We propose that PHYC acts as a molecular timer and communicates information on night-length to the circadian clock via ELF3.

Original languageEnglish
Article number256
JournalGenome biology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'Phytochromes transmit photoperiod information via the evening complex in Brachypodium'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this