The visual pigment in vertebrate photoreceptors is a G protein-coupled receptor that consists of a protein, opsin, covalently attached to a chromophore, 11-cis-retinal. Activation of the visual pigment by light triggers a transduction cascade that produces experimentally measurable electrical responses in photoreceptors. The interactions between opsin and chromophore can be investigated with electrophysiologial recordings in intact amphibian and mouse rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Here we describe methods for substituting the native chromophore with various chromophore analogs to investigate how specific parts of the chromophore affect the signaling properties of the visual pigment and the function of photoreceptors. We also describe methods for genetically substituting the native rod opsin gene with cone opsins or with mutant rod opsins to investigate and compare their signaling properties. These methods are useful not only for understanding the relation between the properties of visual pigments and the function of photoreceptors but also for understanding the mechanisms by which mutations in rod opsin produce night blindness and other visual disorders.