Physiological factors that regulate the use of endogenous fat and carbohydrate fuels during endurance exercise

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Abstract

Exercise causes a dramatic increase in energy requirements because of the metabolic needs of working muscles. Exercise-dependent factors regulate fuel use. Absolute exercise intensity determines the exercise-induced increase in energy demands, whereas exercise intensity relative to an individual's maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) determines the proportional contribution of different fuel sources (i.e. plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids, muscle glycogen and intramuscular triacylglycerols). Endurance training increases aerobic capacity in muscle and the oxidation of fat during exercise. In addition, exercise-independent factors, such as diet composition, sex, age, and body composition also influence substrate use during exercise. The present review discusses the regulation of substrate use during exercise in human subjects, with a focus on the role of exercise-independent factors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-108
Number of pages12
JournalNutrition Research Reviews
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2003

Keywords

  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • Endurance exercise
  • Energy requirement
  • Fat metabolism

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