Photoacoustic microscopy of neovascularization in three-dimensional porous scaffolds

Xin Cai, Yu Zhang, Li Li, Sung Wook Choi, Matthew R. MacEwan, Junjie Yao, Chulhong Kim, Younan Xia, Lihong V. Wang

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


It is a challenge to non-invasively visualize in vivo the neovascularization in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with high spatial resolution and deep penetration depth. Here we used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to chronically monitor neovascularization in an inverse opal scaffold implanted in a mouse model for up to six weeks. The neovasculature was observed to develop gradually in the same mouse. These blood vessels not only grew on top of the implanted scaffold but also penetrated into the scaffold. The PAM system offered a lateral resolution of ∼45 μm and a penetration depth of ∼3 mm into the scaffold/tissue construct. By using the 3D PAM data, we further quantified the vessel area as a function of time.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhotons Plus Ultrasound
Subtitle of host publicationImaging and Sensing 2013
StatePublished - 2013
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2013 - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 3 2013Feb 5 2013

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferencePhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2013
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Three-dimensional scaffold
  • biomedical imaging
  • neovascularization
  • photoacoustic microscopy
  • tissue engineering


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