Phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 and apoptotic cells as new promoters of myoblast fusion

Amelia E. Hochreiter-Hufford, Chang Sup Lee, Jason M. Kinchen, Jennifer D. Sokolowski, Sanja Arandjelovic, Jarrod A. Call, Alexander L. Klibanov, Zhen Yan, James W. Mandell, Kodi S. Ravichandran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

227 Scopus citations


Skeletal muscle arises from the fusion of precursor myoblasts into multinucleated myofibres. Although conserved transcription factors and signalling proteins involved in myogenesis have been identified, upstream regulators are less well understood. Here we report an unexpected discovery that the membrane protein BAI1, previously linked to recognition of apoptotic cells by phagocytes, promotes myoblast fusion. Endogenous BAI1 expression increased during myoblast fusion, and BAI1 overexpression enhanced myoblast fusion by means of signalling through ELMO/Dock180/Rac1 proteins. During myoblast fusion, a fraction of myoblasts within the population underwent apoptosis and exposed phosphatidylserine, an established ligand for BAI1 (ref. 3). Blocking apoptosis potently impaired myoblast fusion, and adding back apoptotic myoblasts restored fusion. Furthermore, primary human myoblasts could be induced to form myotubes by adding apoptotic myoblasts, even under normal growth conditions. Mechanistically, apoptotic cells did not directly fuse with the healthy myoblasts, rather the apoptotic cells induced a contact-dependent signalling with neighbours to promote fusion among the healthy myoblasts. In vivo, myofibres from Bai1-/-mice are smaller than those from wild-type littermates. Muscle regeneration after injury was also impaired in Bai1-/-mice, highlighting a role for BAI1 in mammalian myogenesis. Collectively, these data identify apoptotic cells as a new type of cue that induces signalling via the phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 to promote fusion of healthy myoblasts, with important implications for muscle development and repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-267
Number of pages5
Issue number7448
StatePublished - 2013


Dive into the research topics of 'Phosphatidylserine receptor BAI1 and apoptotic cells as new promoters of myoblast fusion'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this