Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases, principally Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease are among the most common immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. We aim to elucidate the clinical course and outcomes of patients with concomitant inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, a unique population that remains scarcely studied to date. Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study of adults with co-existent inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] and celiac disease was performed at a tertiary referral institution in North America. Logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier curves compared disease characteristics and clinical outcomes of the two groups. Results: A total of 342 inflammatory bowel disease patients were included in this study, of whom 114 had co-existent celiac disease and 228 did not. Patients with co-existent inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease had higher rates of primary sclerosing cholangitis [19.3% vs 5.7%; odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–9.4; p <0.001], extensive ulcerative colitis [78.1% vs 59.0%; odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–5.5; p =0.002], and family history of celiac disease [10.5% vs 3.5%; odds ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–8.2; p =0.01], compared with patients without concomitant celiac disease. Conclusions: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease with concomitant celiac disease have unique phenotypic features compared with non-celiac inflammatory bowel disease, with higher risks for colitis-related hospitalisations, extensive colitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Increased recognition of co-existent IBD and celiac disease can prompt clinicians to investigate for concomitant disease sooner, particularly in patients with seemingly refractory disease.
- Celiac disease
- Clinical course
- Concurrent immune-mediated gastrointestinal diseases
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis