Multivalent proteins and nucleic acids, collectively referred to as multivalent associative biomacromolecules, provide the driving forces for the formation and compositional regulation of biomolecular condensates. Here, we review the key concepts of phase transitions of aqueous solutions of associative biomacromolecules, specifically proteins that include folded domains and intrinsically disordered regions. The phase transitions of these systems come under the rubric of coupled associative and segregative transitions. The concepts underlying these processes are presented, and their relevance to biomolecular condensates is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8945-8987
Number of pages43
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 26 2023


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