Purpose: To evaluate the effect of bexarotene on survival in patients with relapsed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: Patients with stage IIIB NSCLC with pleural effusion or stage IV NSCLC, who had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2, and were previously treated with ≥ two different regimens that must have included a platinum and a taxane, received oral bexarotene 400 mg/m2/d plus concomitant levothyroxine and a lipid-lowering agent. Primary efficacy end point was survival. Results: For the 146 assessable patients treated with bexarotene, median age was 66 years (range, 34 to 87 years), 51% were men, and the median number of prior regimens was three (range, one to seven). The overall median survival was 5 months (95% CI, 4 to 7 months) and the 1-year survival was 23% (95% CI, 16% to 31%). Survival was significantly longer in patients with bexarotene-induced hypertriglyceridemia and/or skin rash. In 26 patients who had both adverse effects, the median and 1-year survival rates were 12 months (95% CI, 8 to 15 months) and 48%, respectively. In 40 patients who had neither adverse effect, median and 1-year survival rates were 2 months (95% CI, 2 to 5 months) and 15%, respectively (P = .0002). Twenty patients (14%) discontinued therapy because of bexarotene-related toxicity. For the remaining patients, adverse reactions to bexarotene were generally mild to moderate. Conclusion: In the intent-to-treat population, bexarotene given as third or subsequent line of therapy for relapsed NSCLC did not achieve the intended median survival of 6 months. Survival may have been extended in patients who developed bexarotene-induced hypertriglyceremia and/or skin rash. It is important to confirm these observations in a randomized controlled trial.