Objectives. To exploit the favorable dose intensity and safety profile of weekly paclitaxel, we conducted a Phase I trial of paclitaxel by 3-hour infusion in combination with estramustine phosphate (EM) in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The antimicrotubule drug combination of paclitaxel by 96-hour infusion plus EM is active in HRPC. Methods. Twenty-four patients with metastatic HRPC and progressive tumor after antiandrogen withdrawal were enrolled in this study. Oral EM was taken at a dose of 600 mg/m2 daily for the initial 21 patients and on a reduced schedule of 280 mg twice daily for the final 3 patients. Paclitaxel was escalated from 60 to 118 mg/m2. Results. The major toxicities were gastrointestinal and thromboembolic complications related to daily oral dosing of EM. Of the first 21 patients, one third (n = 7) discontinued therapy within 4 weeks because of protracted nausea and/or thrombotic complications. Dose-limiting toxicities at 118 mg/m2 paclitaxel were fatigue and hepatotoxicity. Of 13 patients with measurable soft-tissue lesions, 6 had objective partial regressions, and 9 (37.5%) of 24 patients (95% confidence interval 19.1% to 59.1%) with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels had a 50% or greater decline of at least 4 weeks' duration. Conclusions. Weekly paclitaxel at doses of 60 to 107 mg/m2 were feasible in combination with oral EM, but daily oral EM produced unacceptable toxicity. On the basis of these results, a Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel with the reduced dose and schedule of EM was initiated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group to assess further the benefits and risks of this treatment in men with metastatic HRPC.