Purpose Our preclinical work identified depletion of ATR as a top candidate for topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor synthetic lethality and showed that ATR inhibition sensitizes tumors to TOP1 inhibitors. We hypothesized that a combination of selective ATR inhibitor M6620 (previously VX-970) and topotecan, a selective TOP1 inhibitor, would be tolerable and active, particularly in tumors with high replicative stress. Patients and Methods This phase I study tested the combination ofM6620 and topotecan in 3-week cycles using 3 + 3 dose escalation. The primary end point was the identification of the maximum tolerated dose of the combination. Efficacy and pharmacodynamics were secondary end points. Results Between September 2016 and February 2017, 21 patients enrolled. The combinationwas well tolerated, which allowed for dose escalation to the highest planned dose level (topotecan 1.25 mg/m2, days 1 to 5; M6620 210 mg/m2, days 2 and 5). One of six patients at this dose level experienced grade 4 thrombocytopenia that required transfusion, a dose-limiting toxicity. Most common treatment-related grade 3 or 4 toxicities were anemia, leukopenia, and neutropenia (19% each); lymphopenia (14%); and thrombocytopenia (10%). Two partial responses (≥ 18 months, ≥ 7 months) and seven stable disease responses≥3months (median, 9months; range, 3 to 12months) were seen. Three of five patientswith small-cell lung cancer, all of whom had platinum-refractory disease, had a partial response or prolonged stable disease (10, ≥ 6, and ≥ 7 months). Pharmacodynamic studies showed preliminary evidence of ATR inhibition and enhanced DNA double-stranded breaks in response to the combination. Conclusion To our knowledge, this report is the first of an ATR inhibitor-chemotherapy combination. The maximum dose of topotecan plus M6620 is tolerable. The combination seems particularly active in platinum-refractory small-cell lung cancer, which tends not to respond to topotecan alone. Phase II studies with biomarker evaluation are ongoing.