BACKGROUND: There is no effective second-line systemic chemotherapy for patients with disease progression after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. A phase 2 trial of sorafenib was performed to determine the activity and toxicity of this agent in a multi-institutional setting in patients previously treated with 1 prior chemotherapy regimen. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma were treated with sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily continuously until progression or unacceptable toxicity. RESULTS: There were no objective responses observed. The 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 9.5%; median overall survival of the group was 6.8 months. There were no therapy-related deaths, and common grade 3 toxicities included fatigue and hand-foot syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Although sorafenib as a single agent has minimal activity in patients with advanced urothelial cancer in the second-line setting, further investigation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors using different trial designs with PFS endpoints is warranted.
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
- Urothelial cancer