Phase 1 study of oral azacitidine (CC-486) plus R-CHOP in previously untreated intermediate- to high-risk DLBCL

Peter Martin, Nancy L. Bartlett, Julio C. Chavez, John L. Reagan, Sonali M. Smith, Ann S. LaCasce, Jeffrey Jones, James Drew, Chengqing Wu, Erin Mulvey, Maria V. Revuelta, Leandro Cerchietti, John P. Leonard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Resistance to standard immunochemotherapy remains an unmet challenge in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and aberrant DNA methylation may contribute to chemoresistance. Promising early-phase results were reported with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) plus subcutaneous azacitidine, a hypomethylating agent. In this phase 1 study, we evaluated CC-486 (oral azacitidine) plus 6 cycles of R-CHOP in patients with previously untreated intermediate- to high-risk DLBCL or grade 3B/transformed follicular lymphoma. CC-486 doses of 100, 150, 200, or 300 mg given 7 days before cycle 1 and on days 8-21 of cycles 1-5 were evaluated; additional patients were enrolled in the expansion phase to examine preliminary efficacy. The primary objectives were to determine the safety and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CC-486 in combination with R-CHOP. The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hematologic, including neutropenia (62.7%) and febrile neutropenia (25.4%); grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were uncommon (<7%). The MTD was not established; 2 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (1 with grade 4 febrile neutropenia; 1 with grade 4 prolonged neutropenia). The recommended phase 2 dose was established as 300 mg. The overall response rate was 94.9%, with 52 patients (88.1%) achieving complete responses. With a median follow-up of 28.9 months, estimated 1- and 2-year progression-free survival rates were 84.1% and 78.6%, respectively. Overall, epigenetic priming with CC-486 before R-CHOP can be delivered with acceptable safety to patients with previously untreated intermediate- to high-risk DLBCL or grade 3B/transformed follicular lymphoma. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02343536.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1147-1159
Number of pages13
JournalBlood
Volume139
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 24 2022

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