This study evaluated the safety, dosimetry, and characteristics of 3-((2-fluoro-4-(5-(2'-methyl-2-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzyl)(methyl-11C)amino)propanoic acid (11C-CS1P1), a radiotracer targeting sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) 1 (S1PR1). S1PR1 is of clinical interest because of its role in multiple sclerosis (and other conditions), with an expanding class of S1PR modulators approved for relapsing multiple sclerosis. 11C-CS1P1 binds S1PR1 with high specificity and has shown promise in animal models of inflammatory diseases. Methods:11C-CS1P1 was injected into 5 male and 6 female healthy participants. Ten participants were imaged with PET using a multipass whole-body continuous-bed-motion acquisition, and one had dedicated head and neck PET and MRI. Participants were continuously monitored for safety events. Organ time-activity curve data were collected, integrated, and normalized to the injected activity. Organ radiation doses and effective dose were computed using the adult male and female models in OLINDA, version 2.2. SUV images were evaluated for qualitative biodistribution. Results: No adverse events were observed after the dose, including no bradycardia. The liver was the critical organ from dosimetry analysis (mean ± SD: female, 23.12 ± 5.19 μSv/MBq; male, 21.06 ± 1.63 μSv/MBq). The whole-body effective dose (as defined by International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 103) was 4.18 ± 0.30 μSv/MBq in women and 3.54 ± 0.14 μSv/MBq in men. Using a maximum delivered dose of 740 MBq (20 mCi), the effective dose for women would be 3.1 mSv (0.31 rem), with a liver dose of 17.1 mSv (1.7 rem); the effective dose for men would be 2.6 mSv (0.26 rem), with a liver dose of 15.6 mSv (1.56 rem). Brain uptake was seen predominantly in gray matter and correlated with regional S1PR1 RNA expression (r = 0.84). Conclusion: These results support the safety of 11C-CS1P1 for evaluation of inflammation in human clinical populations. Dosimetry permits repeated measures in the same participants. Brain uptake correlates well with known target topography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1775-1782
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022


  • PET
  • cerebral inflammation
  • radiation dosimetry
  • sphingosine-1-phosphate
  • spingosine-1-phosphate receptors


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