We assembled a cohort of 21 117 kidney transplant patients from July 2006 to June 2011 with Medicare Part D coverage using US Renal Database System data to determine real-world use of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis was defined as filled prescriptions for daily oral valganciclovir (≤900 mg), ganciclovir (≤3 g), or valacyclovir (6-8 g) within 28 d of transplant. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with CMV prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis (97% valganciclovir) was identified in 61% of kidney transplant recipients (median duration, 64 d); 71% of seronegative recipients of kidneys from seropositive donors (D+/R-); 63% of R+ patients; 60% of patients with unknown serostatus; and 34% of D-/R- patients. Variability in usage of prophylaxis among transplant centers was greater than variability within transplant centers. One in four transplant centers prescribed CMV prophylaxis to >60% of their D-/R- patients. CMV donor/recipient serostatus, lymphocyte-depleting agents for induction and mycophenolate for maintenance were associated with CMV prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis was commonly used among kidney transplant recipients. Routine prescription of CMV prophylaxis to D-/R- patients may have occurred in some transplant centers. Limiting unnecessary use of CMV prophylaxis may decrease healthcare costs and drug-related harms.
- Kidney transplant