We compared the three arms of the MM-015 randomized phase III clinical trial [melphalan and prednisone (MP), MP plus lenalidomide (MPR), and MPR plus lenalidomide maintenance (MPR-R)] to determine whether the addition of lenalidomide maintenance therapy for primary treatment of multiple myeloma is cost-effective. We used progression-free survival and adverse event data from the MM-015 study for the analysis. Two novel measures of cost-effectiveness termed the Average Cumulative Cost per Patient (ACCP) and the Average Cumulative Cost per Progression-Free Survivor (ACCPFS) were developed for the purpose of this analysis. The ACCP of MP was USD 18,218, compared to USD 167,862 for MPR and USD 309,173 for MPR-R. The ACCPFS was highest with MPR at USD 1,555,443, while MP was USD 313,592 and MPR-R was USD 690,111. MPR-R is superior to MPR in terms of preventing the first progression after initial therapy. However, the addition of lenalidomide to MP in the induction and also in the maintenance setting leads to significant costs.
- Multiple myeloma