Phantom-based Quality Assurance of a Clinical Dose Accumulation Technique Used in an Online Adaptive Radiation Therapy Platform

Borna Maraghechi, Thomas Mazur, Dao Lam, Alex Price, Lauren Henke, Hyun Kim, Geoffrey D. Hugo, Bin Cai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study aimed to develop a routine quality assurance method for a dose accumulation technique provided by a radiation therapy platform for online treatment adaptation. Methods and Materials: Two commonly used phantoms were selected for the dose accumulation QA: Electron density and anthropomorphic pelvis. On a computed tomography (CT) scan of the electron density phantom, 1 target (gross tumor volume [GTV]; insert at 6 o'clock), a subvolume within this target, and 7 organs at risk (OARs; other inserts) were contoured in the treatment planning system (TPS). Two adaptation sessions were performed in which the GTV was recontoured, first at 7 o'clock and then at 5 o'clock. The accumulated dose was exported from the TPS after delivery. Deformable vector fields were also exported to manually accumulate doses for comparison. For the pelvis phantom, synthetic Gaussian deformations were applied to the planning CT image to simulate organ changes. Two single-fraction adaptive plans were created based on the deformed planning CT and cone beam CT images acquired onboard the radiation therapy platform. A manual dose accumulation was performed after delivery using the exported deformable vector fields for comparison with the system-generated result. Results: All plans were successfully delivered, and the accumulated dose was both manually calculated and derived from the TPS. For the electron density phantom, the average mean dose differences in the GTV, boost volume, and OARs 1 to 7 were 0.0%, –0.2%, 92.0%, 78.4%, 1.8%, 1.9%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 2.3%, respectively, between the manually summed and platform-accumulated doses. The gamma passing rates for the 3-dimensional dose comparison between the manually generated and TPS-provided dose accumulations were >99% for both phantoms. Conclusions: This study demonstrated agreement between manually obtained and TPS-generated accumulated doses in terms of both mean structure doses and local 3-dimensional dose distributions. Large disagreements were observed for OAR1 and OAR2 defined on the electron density phantom due to OARs having lower deformation priority over the target in addition to artificially large changes in position induced for these structures fraction-by-fraction. The tests applied in this study to a commercial platform provide a straightforward approach toward the development of routine quality assurance of dose accumulation in online adaptation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101138
JournalAdvances in Radiation Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2023


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